EPUB Wittgenstein By Anthony Kenny – dugisits.co.za

CHARACTERS Wittgenstein

SUMMARY ´ Wittgenstein READ ☆ E-book, or Kindle E-pub ↠ Anthony Kenny TionThe Metaphysics of Logical AtomismThe Dismantling of Logical AtomismAnticipation Intentionality VerificationUnderstanding Thinking MeaningLanguage GamesPrivate LanguagesOn Scepticism CertaintyThe Continuity of Wittgenstein's PhilosophySuggestions for Further ReadingInde 710

READ ☆ E-book, or Kindle E-pub ↠ Anthony Kenny


SUMMARY ´ Wittgenstein READ ☆ E-book, or Kindle E-pub ↠ Anthony Kenny Widely praised for providing a lucid and historically informed account of Wittgenstein's core philosophical concernsDemonstrates the continuity between Wittgenstein's early and later writingsProvides a persuasive argument for the unity of Wittgenstein's thoughtKenny also as The philosopher is not a citizen of any community of ideas That is what makes him a philosopher Ludwig Wittgenstein Philosophy gives no pictures of reality and can neither confirm nor confute scientific investigations LW Philosophy teaches us the logical form of propositions that is its fundamental task LW During his military service LW wrote his philosophical thoughts into notebooks which he carried in his rucksack Most of them were destroyed at his orders in 1950 but three survived and have been published posthumously Out of those notes grew the only philosophical book he published in his lifetime the Tractatus He composed it by selecting the best thoughts out of his notebooks and reordering and numbering them until he was satisfied with their seuence One of his preliminary orderings has been discovered and published under the title Prototractatus He sent the Tractatus from prison camp to Russell through the good offices of Keynes Those two men discussed the manuscript line by line in Holland in 1919 Some of LW s favorite films were Westerns just as some of his favorite books were detective novels He thought the philosophical journal Mind was filled with all its impotence and bankruptcy His notes from classes from 1933 34 circulated in copies and became known as The Blue Book Another carefully prepared manuscript dictated the following year was known as The Brown Book These notes were composed in English unlike his other works They were published posthumously and are the easiest to read LW almost lived in the Soviet Union The growing tyranny of Stalin probably prevented that He believed university life led to hysterical artificiality He described a professor s life as a living death He told a PhD graduate he would be expected to cheat himself and his students He resigned as a professor after only two years LW said we are tempted to explain a word like pain as being acuired by our own private incommunicable sensation This temptation must be resisted No word can acuire meaning in this way A proposition is like a sentence But not a command or a uestion Some sentences are made up of two propositions A proposition is an indicative sentence capable of standing on its own A different language is a different proposition So we must add that a proposition is a sentence considered with respect to its meaning and not say with respect to its sound when spoken or appearance on the page Propositions express thoughts LW on the Tractatus The aim of this book is to set a limit to thought or rather not to thought but to the expression of thoughts TLP Preface LW aimed to show what is thinkable by by showing what is sayable to mark the limits by setting the limits of language Frege spoke of the Morning Star and the Evening Star Both refer to Venus but there are differences So Frege suggested a distinction between two sorts of meaning sense and reference The two expressions have a different sense but they both refer to Venus Frege seemed to have believed that all expressions had both a sense and reference Wittgenstein disagreed by saying the name Socrates had both a sense and a reference Russell agreed and was admired by LW for this Russell said a phrase like the teacher of Plato was not a name at all Russell called it the theory of definite descriptions LW s theme was that logic must take care of itself He rejected a philosophy of logic as Russell and Frege conceived of it Everything which is possible in logic is also permitted TLP 5473 LW counts as pictures paintings drawings photographs maps sculptures musical scores gramaphone records and other representations Any representation can be an accurate or inaccurate representation it can give a true or false picture of what it represents Two things need to be considered 1 what it is a representation of 2 whether it represents what it represents accurately or inaccurately Spacial representation is important to accuracy That is itself a fact This led LW to say that a picture is itself a fact There is no a priori truth As LW said In order for a proposition to be capable of being true it must also be capable of being false NB 55 In other words all genuine propositions are contingent propositions To each pair of contradictory propositions there corresponds one and only one fact the fact which makes one of them true and the other false The totality of such facts is the world TLP 11 Facts may be positive or negative a positive fact is the existence of a state of affairs a negative fact is the non existene of a state of affairs TLP 206 A state of affairs is a combination of objects or things An object is essentially a possible constituent of a state of affairs TLP 2011 and its possibility of occurring in combination with other objects in states of affairs is its nature TLP 20123 its internal properties TLP 21231 and its form TLP 20141 Since every object contains within its nature all the possibilities for its combination with other objects if any object is given then all objects are given TLP 5524 and if all objects are given then all possible states of affairs are given TLP 20124 Objects combine into states of affairs in which they stand in a determinate relation to one another like the links of a chain TLP 2023 States of affairs we are told are independent of one another TLP 2061 from the existence or non existence of another Since facts are the existence and non existence of states of affairs it follows that facts too are independent of each other TLP 121 The totality of facts of reality is the world My propositions serve as elucidations in the following way anyone who understands me eventually recognzies them as nonsensical when he has used them as steps to climb up beyond them He must so to speak throw away the ladder after he has climbed up it He must transcend these propositions and then he will see the world aright TLP 654 The Real though it is an in itself must also be able to become a for myself and uses single terms with a variety of different meanings We must replace it by a symbolism which gives a clear picture of the logical structure excludes pseudopropositions and uses its terms unambiguously Redness and blueness represent an impossible combination an attempt as it were to put both redness and blueness where there is only room for one of them Can anyone see both red and blue at the same time Once again though the answer must come from science it is possible to invent words but I cannot think any thoughts to go with them WWK 68 Wittgenstein believes that the definitive verification of a hypothesis is neither possible nor necessary On verificationism 1 I am in pain is a proposition which I verify by inner observation of myself 2 He is in pain says the same thing about him as I am in pain says about me 3 Therefore He is in pain is a proposition which is verified by inner observation of him 1 and 24 I cannot inwardly observe him I cannot stand to his pain in the relation that he stands to it or that I stand to mine 5 Therefore He is in pain cannot be verified 3 and 46 Therefore I am in pain cannot be verified 2 and 57 Therefore I am in pain is meaningless 6 and the principle of verificationLW was fond of telling a joke about a French politician who said that it was a characteristic of the French language that in it words occur in the order in which one thinks of them Calling this a joke means he thought there was something wrong in treating thought as an articulate process like saying Thoughts go through our heads like lightning The sentence Think before you speak is nonsense No one thinks before they speak Do they Try it Don t speak unless you consider the words carefully in your mind along with other possibilities What then is the relation between thought and language Can one think without speaking It has been said that animals cannot think because they cannot speak But my kitty understands me when I say to her Do you want to eat She gets all mushy and pushes her paws against me and I get all mushy because I love her to freaking pieces Yes I do Yes I do ahem Sometimes she answers me with a meow of Yes So is thought possible without language I think so Is language possible without thought I think so But my responses negate my responses I go in circles Is a rod a lever only when it is in use BM 140 What ties the ship to the wharf is a rope and the rope consists of fibers but it does not get its strength from any fiber which runs through it from one end to the other but from the fact that there is a vast number of fibers overlapping PI I 65 7 BB 87 The comparison between language and a game was not meant to suggest language was something trivial on the contrary it is a part of a communal activity a way of living in society which LW calls a form of life PI I 23 In On Certainty LW enunciates a number of conclusions about doubt 1 Doubt needs grounds 2 Doubt must amount to something than the verbal utterance of doubt 3 Doubt presupposes the mastery of a language game If you are not certain of any fact you cannot be certain of the meaning of your words either OC 114 4 Doubt outside a language game or about a whole language game is impossible In other words universal doubt is impossible It would be like a student doubting every word that came out of a teacher s mouth His doubt is hollow he has not learned how to ask uestions he has not learned the game that he is being taught OC 310 315 Not calling things in doubt is often a precondition of learning certain games OC 329 The child learns by believing the adult and the doubt comes after belief OC 160 A doubt that doubted everything would not be a doubt OC 450 5 Doubt presupposes certainty Doubt is possible only where testing is possible OC 125 and tests presuppose something that is not doubted and not tested OC 163 337 Our doubts depend on the fact that some propositions are exempt from doubt are as if it were like the hinges on which those turn OC 341 Hence The game of doubting itself presupposes certainty OC 115 We can make list of things as did Wittgenstein and Moore that cannot be doubted Try it It s a good start to logical thinking Providing of course your list doesn t disagree with mine And saying something cannot be doubted is not the same thing as saying that it can be known Again saying one has a pain means nothing It follows from this that I know makes no sense either OC 58 A few weeks before he died LW said Am I not getting closer and closer to saying that in the end logic cannot be described You must look at the practice of language then you will see it OC 501He also said Logic must take care of itself NB 2 No proposition is a priori true LW continued to insist that if a sentence makes sense its negation must make sense conseuently an real synthetic a priori proposition is impossible His feelings about philosophy In philosophy there are no deductions it is purely descriptive The word philosophy ought always to designate something over or under but not beside the natural sciences Philosophy gives no picture of reality and can neither confirm nor confute scientific investigations It consists of logic and metaphysics the former its basis Epistemology is the philosophy of psychology Distrust of grammar is the first reuisite of philosophizing Philosophy is the doctrine of the logical form of scientific propositions not primitive propositions only A correct explanation of the logical propositions must give them a uniue position as against all other propositions

Anthony Kenny ↠ 9 SUMMARY

SUMMARY ´ Wittgenstein READ ☆ E-book, or Kindle E-pub ↠ Anthony Kenny Sesses Wittgenstein's influence in the latter part of the twentieth centuryInsidePrefaceAbbreviations in References to Works by WittgensteinBiographical Sketch of Wittgenstein's PhilosophyThe Legacy of Frege RussellThe Criticism of PrincipiaThe Picture Theory of the Proposi An excellent overview of the major themes and concepts in Wittgenstein s Philosophy from the notebooks he wrote while fighting for Germany in the trenches of WWI to the diary entry containing a beautiful metaphor about rain he wrote days before his death in England in 1951 On the whole Kenny describes Wittgenstein s ideas with remarkable simplicity and clarity I was even following the bits of his early thought that consisted pretty much entirely of logic notation which is a blaady miracle There were occasionally points where Kenny s explanation of a point was less than clear however and despite re reading a couple of passages several times I just had to accept that I wasn t going to grasp the point he was making On the other hand he points out holes in Wittgenstein s logic and point where Wittgenstein contradicts himself which being a bit of a Wittgenstein fanboy I hadn t noticed beforeThe most impressive and some would say radical argument Kenny makes is his assertion of the continuity between the Early Wittgenstein and the Late Wittgenstein the latter often thought to be an entire refutation of the former I admit to being guilty of this assumption myself so seeing it be debunked with such logic and clarity was nice

  • Paperback
  • 256
  • Wittgenstein
  • Anthony Kenny
  • English
  • 25 November 2019
  • 9780140215816