EBOOK The Most Controversial Decision BY Wilson D. Miscamble – dugisits.co.za


  • Paperback
  • 174
  • The Most Controversial Decision
  • Wilson D. Miscamble
  • English
  • 15 April 2020
  • 9780521735360

Wilson D. Miscamble ´ 5 Free download

The Most Controversial Decision Free download ¹ PDF, eBook or Kindle ePUB free Wilson D. Miscamble ´ 5 Free download This book explores the American use of atomic bombs and the role these weapons played in the defeat of the Japanese Empire in World War II It focuses on President Harry S Truman's decision making regarding this most controversial of all his decisions The book relies on notable archival research an A uestion which has a disturbing implication That the use of the atomic bomb was necessary to obtain the surrender of Japan or that is was not necessary The latter either reuires then one hundred thousand civilians must die to accomplish for reasons whether malicious or not and the latter reuires the acknowledgement that the killing of so many civilians can in fact produce a moral good the ending of the most costly war in human historyIn general discussions of the use of the bomb take one of two positions it was necessary and just or it was unnecessary and unjust Father Miscambe seems to come to the conclusion which I agree with that bombings were a profoundly unjust act but that those in the decision making process were correct as then Secretary of War put it this deliberate premeditated destruction was our least abhorrent choiceClaims that Japan was ready to surrender on something close to the terms they eventually did or that that the bomb was used to intimidate the Soviet Union are rather easil put to rest Miscambe spends much time focusing the latter then the former since it involves technical details The author goes into detail into different members of the Executive s varying attitudes toward the Soviet Union as well as there attitude toward using the bomb as a diplomatic tool from primary sources He demonstrates decisively that President Truman did not favor using the bomb as anything other then a war weapon against Japan Further he shows that Truman and his cabinet had no control over the bomb s use after clearing it s final use to the militaryThe internal discussions within the Japanese cabinet are decisive At no point did Japan s cabinet include peace elements show a desire to surrender under the Potsdam terms of unconditional surrender It is sometimes claimed that if the United States sent a message that they would preserve the the Emperor the surrender would obtained without the bomb This is problematic because it s mistakes the concept of a constitutional monarchy and the Imperial system which was destroyed after Japan adopted it s constitution under the occupation President Truman very nearly accepted and was encouraged so by Secretary of War Stimson a message of surrender that accepting the Potsdam Declaration with the caveat this would not compromise any demand which preclude prerogatives of His Majesty as a Sovereign Ruler After it was made clear the implications of this Truman reversed himself and sent a message that made it that the Emperor would be subject to the Supreme Allied Commander and tempered this anything that implied the permanent absolute existence of the Emperor with the proclaiming that the ultimate form of government of Japanshall be established by the freely expressed will of the people It is true that the US leadership was not against having Japan retain the position of Emperor or and Truman seemed surprisingly sanguine for someone he regarded almost as bad as Hitler getting to keep some sort of dignity In fact Hirohito would almost lose his grip on power but as the war crimes trials combined with the internal mechanism of the royal family before MacArthur put his foot down and made it clear he didn t want Hirohito going anywhereThe Emperor s agreement to these terms triggered a attempted coup that wished to sideline him It was the Showa Emperor earlier after the bombing of Hiroshima decided the war was so destructive as to be pointless to continue The Japanese cabinet was deadlocked between hardliners and proponents for a negotiated peace The second bomb did not shift this deadlock Under the rules of Japanese governance Prime Minister Suzuki should have resigned but in the desperate situation he did not and instead summoned a conference at the Palace where after listening to the debate between the two parties the Emperor intervenedThe uestion then is not whether Japan would have accepted an unconditional surrender or near such surrender before the bombs were dropped Would have Japan surrendered anyway even if the bomb wasn t dropped Well not immediately certainly It has been suggested that the invasion by the Soviet Union caused Japan to surrender MORE then the two atomic bombs The military significance of that invasion is without uestion but the hardliners in the Japanese cabinet still imagined that Japan could be held against invasion A strong case has been made here and elsewhere that Japan better prepared it s population for invasion and could have inflicted huge causalities in the event of such an invasion although the talk of 1 million American dead and injured does perhaps seem overblown although arguments can be put forward that Japan would have been driven surrendered before an invasion The problem is that these raise significant ethical uestions as wellIt was not felt generally by those in the know that the atomic bomb was necessarily a war ending weapon When the Trinity test preformed better then expected this did raise the hope that it was possible but war planning continued as before Strictly speaking the atomic bomb is a logical successor to the firebombing of civilian population centers in Germany and Japan Had the war continued such bombings would have continued and atomic bombs would have been dropped indeed American troops would have passed through radioactive contamination as information on this was not totally apparentThe human cost of continuing the war it must be said unless Japan surrendered very uickly would have been tremendous even assuming Japan was not invaded The United States had a blockade of Japan s supply lines to the outside world An element of this was actually called Operation Starvation and had the potential to cause mass civilian deaths At Nuremberg prosecutors attempted to charge Admiral Donitz and Radaar for use of unrestricted submarine warfare for sinking civilian ships without warning but had to drop it once Chester Nimitz stated the US engaged in the same practice both guilty of other crimes and sentenced to prison Although whether problematic United States Bombing Survey is right that a better coordinated effort to starve Japan out could have ended the war earlier I don t know Although it s not in the same Leningrad was starved to the effect of then half a million dead without breaking Is it morally better to blockade a people and let them starve then to bombard them from the sky or are they both eually wrongFormer President Hoover the closest thing America s ever had to a pacifist in the White House did not know about the atomic bomb He didn t get along with FDR who always jabbed at him but Truman felt a special kinship to the only living former President Hoover advised Truman not to invade Japan even if it meant leaving contracted for the Empire in place The invasion would take too many American lives and not be worth itJapan several days after the bomb was dropped complained through the Swiss that the bomb killed disproportionately without regard for woman or children President Truman in his radio broadcast after the bomb was dropped called Hiroshima a military base Truman also remarked privately that unlike Japan when using this new weapon we would not target women and children The author is correct when thinking that Truman is being self deceptive here Truman would be very combative when the uestion of the morality of the bomb was brought up bringing up Pearl Harbor and Japanese murders He would later begin to speak of the need be cautious in the use of such a terrible weapon Several advisers who had no issue with the bomb at the time would later come to uestion it s useTruman s harshness or callousness must be understood in context World War II was the most terrible war in human history Japan s complaint about targeting civilians might have made sense to Japanese on some level Japan hadn t killed American civilians or destroyed American cities why was American doing the same Yet America had regularly complained about Japanese behavior toward Chinese civilians and then most importantly Japan had launched a sneak attack if only half by a mistake in diplomatic messaging on the United States and treated American prisoners horribly When discussing whether bombing Hiroshima was right or wrong we don t have this perspective any then if we were a wounded survivor of Hiroshima If Japan could not be forced to surrender uickly then were the atomic bombs the right course of action Elizabeth Ascombe who disputes that they were necessary said the bombs were always murder The author says that viewed in isolation the use of the bombs were a deeply immoral act is not obviated by the fact that is done in a good cause He does not say that the decision was incorrect however Indeed just before this he uotes from Machiavelli who he correctly notes is misunderstood saying a man who wants to make a profession of good in all regards must come to ruin among so many who are not goodIf the bombs were wrong then the firebombing that proceeded them would have been wrong Ethically the morality of starving a population had already been condemned before the war There seems little uestion however that applying the Geneva Convention in the most liberal manner to Japan would have led to America losing the war and I do wonder if the bomb had become available earlier and Germany was not defeated the same people uestioning the use of the bomb on Japan would have uestioned it s use on Hamburg or Stuttgart in 1942 if it could have prevented so much of the Nazi horrors although again the same philosophical issues would applyIn the final analysis as the hideous St Just said with a somewhat different meaning One cannot reign innocently

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The Most Controversial Decision

The Most Controversial Decision Free download ¹ PDF, eBook or Kindle ePUB free Wilson D. Miscamble ´ 5 Free download D the best and most recent scholarship on the subject to fashion an incisive overview that is fair and forceful in its judgments This study addresses a subject that has been much debated among historians and it confronts head on the highly disputed claim that the Truman administration practiced at The Most Controversial Decision is as advertised in its thoughtful rebuttal of the revisionist view that victory in the Pacific was imminent without the use of nuclear weapons and that Truman s use of them was as much or about postwar geopolitical considerations than about defeating Japan This revisionist view is difficult to suare with the case laid out by the author However the chapter Necessary But Was It Right did not live up to its billing or my expectations in that it fails to delve into the deeper uestions of just what is permissible to save lives The author effectively slaps down the idea that the war in the Pacific could have been won without either nuclear weapons or massive American and Japanese casualties and the arrows he aims at those who self righteously declare that Truman of whom I m no fan was a war criminal hit home But he does not really engage with the uestion of whether it can be still right even if hundreds of thousands or even millions of lives were ultimately spared by their use Is it right to directly target civilians to save a million people A billion This is perhaps a rabbit hole with no end but strikes me as a central consideration in any debate over whether the use of nuclear weapons in Japan was morally justifiable

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The Most Controversial Decision Free download ¹ PDF, eBook or Kindle ePUB free Wilson D. Miscamble ´ 5 Free download Omic diplomacy The book goes beyond its central historical analysis to ask whether it was morally right for the United States to use these terrible weapons against Hiroshima and Nagasaki It also provides a balanced evaluation of the relationship between atomic weapons and the origins of the Cold W This is a deliberately short book in the Cambridge Essential Histories written by an expert in Truman and the transition from Roosevelt to Truman but self avowedly dependent on other experts for the subjectIt is also admittedly written by a proponent of the traditional position on the decision to drop the atomic bomb The summary is a good one although like some critics I have found in journals the chapter on Necessary but was it Right is at the least too short at the most contradictory of his own tradition I agree that the author although a Catholic priest fails to deal with the morality issue well It may be that the chapter is like the book a summary And certainly uoting Machiavelli almost approvingly is bothersome But most certainly the author does not deal with the moral tradition of the Church at allThe series is intended to be textbooks in college courses intended to raise issues The book does do that well