EPUB The Tangled Tree: A Radical New History of Life AUTHOR David Quammen – dugisits.co.za

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characters The Tangled Tree: A Radical New History of Life ´ PDF, DOC, TXT or eBook In this New York Times bestseller and longlist nominee for the National Book Award “our greatest living chronicler of the natural world” The New York Times David uammen explains how recent discoveries in molecular biology affect our understanding of evolution and life’s history In the mid 1970s scientists began using DNA seuences to reexamine the history of all life Perhaps the most startling discovery to come out of this new field the study of life’s diversity and relatedness at the molecular level is horizontal gene transfer HGT or the movement of genes across species lines It turns out that HGT has been widespread a. National Book Award Longlist for Nonfiction 2018 Wow where to start Probably the most blow your mind thing is that 8% of the human genome originated in virus genomes This is just one of the insights resulting from scientists studying molecular phylogenetics where the study of DNA and RNA in different species allows them to discover the evolutionary relationship among them One such retrovirus genome fragment is found in placentas and helps to transfer nutrients between the mother and child So this is a retrovirus genome fragment that humans have benefitted from However other retroviruses aren t so benevolent they are found in some leukemias and HIV How did viruses get into the human genome Through a process call horizontal gene transfer HGT This is a process whereby genes pass on genetic material directly and is absorbed into the new DNA and can then be passed on vertically from parents to offspring Not surprisingly HGT is prevalent in simpler life forms like bacteria So remember the many bacteria species found in the human GI tract Now what happens when an antibiotic resistant bacteria finds its way in your small intestine There might be some cute little viruses there too And they help to transfer that resistance to many of the other bacteria The result is the avalanche of bacteria species that become resistant to that antibioticThere are some biological forms that are particularly susceptible to HGT things like rotifers These guys look like microscopic sucking organisms and feed on bacteria algal cells small protozoans and organic detritus and are probably prevalent in our rain gutters They absorb all sorts of genome bits and they have been shown to transfer those to fruit fliesIn addition uammen covers the discovery in 1977 by biologist Carl Woese of a third domain of living organisms which he called Archaea These microorganisms were once considered a form of bacteria but its cell walls are completely different allowing it to live in extreme environments like hot springs and salty ponds Further its DNA is in some ways closer to the domain Eukarya organisms like us with cells with a nucleus than regular bacteria EubacteriaBe reassured Darwin s 1837 Origin of the Species is not dispelled It just got complicated Highly recommend

Free download The Tangled Tree: A Radical New History of LifeThe Tangled Tree: A Radical New History of Life

characters The Tangled Tree: A Radical New History of Life ´ PDF, DOC, TXT or eBook Ringing the deep study of genome histories to bear on a global crisis in public health “David uammen proves to be an immensely well informed guide to a complex story” The Wall Street Journal In The Tangled Tree he explains how molecular studies of evolution have brought startling recognitions about the tangled tree of life including where we humans fit upon it Thanks to new technologies we now have the ability to alter even our genetic composition through sideways insertions as nature has long been doing “ The Tangled Tree is a source of wonderuammen has written a deep and daring intellectual adventure” The Boston Glob. Not sure how radical it is The Tangled Tree is an up to date account of evolution or it is about the evolution of our scientific understanding of evolution The principals of Darwinian evolution still stand however the details have been reworked New discoveries are powered by DNA seuencing starting from mid 1970s and mostly in the field of molecular phylogenetics Several topics covered in the book The discovery of Archaea as a separate kingdom by a group of scientists lead by Carl Woese The discovery of Mitochondrion and Chloroplast as captured bacteria they may have been captured by ancient eukaryotic organisms or co evolved from some even ancient life form into today s eukaryotic organisms as we know of Horizontal gene transfer HGT in natural world is much common than scientists used to think HGT played and still plays a very important roles in bacteria evolution We human and other animals on earth contain alien genes too About 8% of the human genome arrived not through traditional inheritance from directly ancestral forms but sideways by viral infection a type of HGT A brief mention of CRISPR gene editingMostly because of HGT life on earth is not a clear branched tree Instead it is a tangled 3D webThe book contains 84 chapters Sometimes it feels repetitive It could be better organized The author covered a lot of scientists It s a mini biography of Carl Woese Another scientist mentioned repeatedly is Lynn Margulis The author did not spare us with the less glorious side of scientific research You read plenty of ugly human competition and conflict in the academia world I like the philosophic uestion the author brought up in the end what are species category and individual How different you and the human being sitting next to you What makes a human human

Free download é PDF, DOC, TXT or eBook ì David Quammen

characters The Tangled Tree: A Radical New History of Life ´ PDF, DOC, TXT or eBook Nd important; we now know that roughly eight percent of the human genome arrived sideways by viral infection a type of HGT In The Tangled Tree “the grandest tale in biologyDavid uammen presents the science and the scientists involved with patience candor and flair” Nature We learn about the major players such as Carl Woese the most important little known biologist of the twentieth century; Lynn Margulis the notorious maverick whose wild ideas about “mosaic” creatures proved to be true; and Tsutomu Wantanabe who discovered that the scourge of antibiotic resistant bacteria is a direct result of horizontal gene transfer b. 99th book for 2018 This is a captivating history of the changing ideas surrounding the evolutionary tree life from Charles Darwin to the latest findings in computational phylogenetics uammen writes really well and the story and it s complications are fascinating However the books flowed is damaged as uammen attempts to write a second book a biography of Carl Woese within the first which breaks up the flow and distracts from the central story of the book Without all the needless additional information on Woese I would have rated the book higher did I really need to know over many pages that in his last years he hated Darwin and thought he missed out on a Nobel Or that he liked to host BBs and liked to pontificate about subjects when drunk Somehow Woese becomes THE central figure in this book the reasons for which uammen never bothers to explainWorth a read but could definitely have used a proactive editor3 stars

  • Kindle Edition
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  • The Tangled Tree: A Radical New History of Life
  • David Quammen
  • en
  • 05 October 2020
  • null